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What Is Neurofeedback Therapy and Its Types?

September 18, 2023

Neurofeedback therapy, often referred to as EEG (Electroencephalogram) biofeedback, is an innovative and non-invasive technique that allows individuals to gain better control over their brain activity. 

This therapy has been used to address a wide range of neurological and psychological conditions, and its effectiveness has garnered significant interest from both the medical community and individuals seeking alternative treatments.

Let’s embark on a journey to understand the intricacies of Neurofeedback Therapy, including what it is, how it works, Types of Neurofeedback Therapy, and Benefits of Neurofeedback Therapy.

What Is Neurofeedback Therapy?

Neurofeedback Therapy is a cutting-edge technique that falls under the broader umbrella of biofeedback therapy. Unlike traditional talk therapy or medication-based approaches, neurofeedback focuses on training the brain itself to function optimally. 

It is a non-invasive, drug-free, and painless procedure that utilizes real-time monitoring of brain activity to help individuals gain better control over their mental and emotional states.

Neurofeedback has a rich history that traces back to the 1960s when it was initially developed as a tool for enhancing peak performance in astronauts and athletes. Over the decades, it has evolved into a powerful therapeutic tool for addressing a wide range of mental health issues.

Now, How Does Neurofeedback Work?

Neurofeedback Therapy operates on the principle that the brain is highly adaptable and can be trained to function optimally. Here’s a step-by-step breakdown of how it works:

Brainwave Monitoring:

The process begins with the placement of electrodes on the scalp. These electrodes are connected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) machine, which records the electrical activity of the brain. This recorded activity is represented as brainwave patterns.

Real-time Feedback:

The recorded brainwave patterns are displayed on a computer screen in real time. This visual feedback allows both the therapist and the individual undergoing therapy to observe the current state of their brain activity.

Targeted Training:

During a Neurofeedback session, the therapist sets specific training goals based on the individual’s needs. These goals are often related to improving specific aspects of mental function, such as reducing anxiety or increasing focus.


The magic of Neurofeedback lies in the concept of operant conditioning, a form of learning in which behavior is strengthened or weakened by the consequences that follow it. In this case, the brain is the learner, and the consequences are the real-time feedback it receives.

When the individual’s brain exhibits the desired brainwave patterns (associated with the therapeutic goals), they receive positive feedback, which can take the form of visual cues, sounds, or even game rewards. This feedback encourages the brain to continue producing these desirable patterns.

Brain Self-Regulation:

Over time, with repeated sessions, the brain starts to recognize the patterns that lead to positive feedback. It learns to self-regulate and produce these patterns more consistently even outside of therapy sessions.


What are some benefits of Neurofeedback Therapy?

As a non-invasive and personalized approach to improving brain function, it offers numerous benefits that are transforming the lives of many individuals. 

Let’s explore the remarkable advantages of neurofeedback therapy:

Enhanced Focus and Attention:

One of the primary benefits of neurofeedback therapy is its ability to enhance focus and attention. Individuals struggling with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience improved concentration and reduced impulsivity after undergoing neurofeedback sessions. This can significantly improve academic and professional performance.

Stress and Anxiety Reduction:

Neurofeedback can be a valuable tool for managing stress and anxiety. By training the brain to achieve a state of relaxed alertness (often associated with increased alpha wave activity), individuals can better cope with stressors and reduce the symptoms of anxiety disorders.

Improved Mood and Emotional Regulation:

Many people report improvements in their mood and emotional regulation after undergoing neurofeedback therapy. This can be particularly beneficial for individuals dealing with conditions like depression or mood disorders. By promoting balanced brainwave patterns, neurofeedback helps stabilize emotions.

Enhanced Cognitive Function:

Neurofeedback therapy can sharpen cognitive abilities. It’s often used by professionals, students, and athletes to optimize cognitive performance. By training the brain to generate specific brainwave patterns associated with alertness and problem-solving (beta waves), individuals can experience improved cognitive function.

Better Sleep Patterns:

Sleep disorders can significantly impact overall well-being. Neurofeedback has shown promise in helping individuals achieve healthier sleep patterns by addressing issues such as insomnia or night terrors. By encouraging the brain to produce the appropriate brainwave patterns for restful sleep, neurofeedback can lead to more refreshing nights.

Reduction in Migraine Frequency:

Chronic migraine sufferers may find relief through neurofeedback therapy. By targeting specific brainwave patterns associated with migraine triggers, individuals have reported a decrease in the frequency and intensity of migraine headaches.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Support:

Neurofeedback therapy is increasingly being explored as a complementary approach for individuals with PTSD. By addressing the underlying neural patterns associated with trauma, it may help reduce the symptoms of PTSD and improve overall mental health.

Peak Performance Optimization:

Professionals in various fields, including athletes, musicians, and executives, turn to neurofeedback to optimize their performance. By fine-tuning brainwave patterns related to focus, creativity, and stress management, individuals can gain a competitive edge in their respective domains.

Non-Invasive and Drug-Free:

One of the key advantages of neurofeedback is its non-invasive nature. Unlike some medical treatments that may involve medication or surgical procedures, neurofeedback relies solely on monitoring and conditioning brainwave patterns. It’s a drug-free and safe approach.

Personalized Treatment:

Every individual is unique, and neurofeedback therapy is highly personalized. The therapy is tailored to the specific needs and goals of the individual, ensuring that the training aligns with their requirements.

What are the Types of Neurofeedback Therapy?

EEG Neurofeedback

EEG neurofeedback is perhaps the most common type of neurofeedback therapy. It involves monitoring and providing feedback on electrical brain activity using an electroencephalogram (EEG). This therapy can help individuals with a wide range of conditions, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and even sleep disorders.

Hemoencephalography (HEG) Neurofeedback:

HEG neurofeedback focuses on blood flow in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. By training individuals to regulate blood flow to specific brain regions, HEG neurofeedback can be effective in managing conditions such as migraines, depression, and traumatic brain injuries.

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Neurofeedback:

HRV neurofeedback measures the variation in time between successive heartbeats. This type of therapy helps individuals learn to control their heart rate variability, which, in turn, can reduce stress and anxiety, improve emotional regulation, and enhance overall mental well-being.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Neurofeedback:

fMRI neurofeedback involves the use of real-time brain imaging to provide feedback on brain activity. It is a powerful tool for individuals looking to address conditions like chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).


Neurofeedback therapy offers a promising avenue for individuals looking to enhance their mental health and cognitive abilities. With its various types and customized approaches, this innovative therapy has the potential to transform lives. 

Whether you’re seeking improved focus, emotional regulation, or relief from specific conditions, neurofeedback therapy may hold the key to a brighter and more empowered future. 

Consider exploring the possibilities of neurofeedback therapy to unlock your full cognitive potential.

FAQs on Neurofeedback therapy

Q: Is Neurofeedback Therapy Safe? 

Yes, neurofeedback therapy is considered safe when administered by trained and qualified professionals. It’s non-invasive and does not involve the use of medication, making it a low-risk option for many individuals.

Q: Is Neurofeedback Covered by Insurance?

Coverage for neurofeedback therapy can vary by insurance provider and location. It’s advisable to check with your insurance company to determine if it is covered under your plan.

Q: Can Neurofeedback Replace Medication? 

Neurofeedback is not a replacement for medication, but it can complement other treatments. Many individuals have been able to reduce their reliance on medication or experience enhanced benefits when combining neurofeedback with other therapies.

Q: Is Neurofeedback Suitable for Children? 

Yes, neurofeedback therapy can be suitable for children. It has been used effectively to address conditions like ADHD in pediatric populations. 

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